Animal Subject Use
 

Resources
 

Print
 

Anonymous. 1966. Concentration camps for dogs. Life 60(5), February 4, p 22–29.
 

Carruthers P. 1992. The Animals Issue: Moral Theory in Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
 

Cohen C. 1986. The case for the use of animals in biomedical research. N Engl J Med 315:865–870.
 

Francione GL. 1987. Experimentation and the marketplace theory of the First Amendment. Univ Penn Law Rev 136:417–512.
 

Francione GL. 1988. The constitutional status of restrictions on experiments involving nonhuman animals: a comment on Professor Dresser’s analysis. Rutgers Law Rev 40:797–818.
 

Francione GL. 1990. Xenografts and animal rights. Transplant Proc 22:1044–1046.
 

Frey RG. 1980. Interests and Rights: The Case against Animals. Oxford Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
 

Frey RG. 1983. Rights, Killing, and Suffering: Moral Vegetarianism and Applied Ethics. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
 

Frey RG. 1989. The case against animal rights, p 115–118. In Regan T, Singer P (ed), Animal Rights and Human Obligations, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
 

Frey RG, Paton W. 1989. Vivisection, morals, and medicine: an exchange, p 223–236. In Regan T, Singer P (ed), Animal Rights and Human Obligations, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
 

Herzog HA. 1988. The moral status of mice. Am Psychologist 43:473–474.
 

Institute of Medicine. 2011. Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13257.
 

Jamison WV, Lunch WM. 1992. Rights of animals, perceptions of science, and political activism: profile of American animal rights activists. Sci Technol Hum Values 17:438–458.
 

Leahy MPT. 1991. Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective. Routledge, New York, NY.
 

Midgley M. 1989. The case for restricting research using animals, p 216–222. In Regan T, Singer P (ed), Animal Rights and Human Obligations, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
 

Midgley M. 1992. The significance of species, p 121–136. In Hargrove EC (ed), The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.
 

National Research Council. 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn =0309043824.
 

National Research Council. 2010. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12910.
 

Nature. 2011. Special issue: Animal Research: Anatomy of a Conflict. 470:187–197.  http://www.nature.com/news/specials/animalresearch/index.html.
 

Office for Protection from Research Risks. 1986. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Office for Protection from Research Risks, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
 

Post SG. 1993. The emergence of species impartiality: a medical critique of biocentrism. Perspect Biol Med 36:289–300.
 

Regan T. 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
 

Regan T. 1985. The case for animal rights, p 13–26. In Singer P (ed), In Defence of Animals. Basil Blackwell, Inc, Oxford, United Kingdom.
 

Russell WMS, Burch RL. 1959. Principles of Humane Animal Experimentation. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL.
 

Seok J, Warren HS, Cuenca AG, Mindrinos MN, Baker HV, Xu W, Richards DR, McDonald-Smith GP, Gao H, Hennessy L, Finnerty CC, López CM, Honari S, Moore EE, Minei JP, Cuschieri J, Bankey PE, Johnson JL, Sperry J, Nathens AB, Billiar TR, West MA, Jeschke MG, Klein MB, Gamelli RL, Gibran NS, Brownstein BH, Miller-Graziano C, Calvano SE, Mason PH, Cobb JP, Rahme LG, Lowry SF, Maier RV, Moldawer LL, Herndon DN, Davis RW, Xiao W, Tompkins RG; Inflammation and Host Response to Injury, Large Scale Collaborative Research Program. 2013. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:3507–3512. http://www.pnas.org/content/110/9/3507.full#aff-2.
 

Singer P. 1990. Animal Liberation, 2nd ed. Avon Books, New York, NY.
 

Online
 

Policies and laws
 

The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals can be found on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) website (2002 reprint):

    http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm
 

A U.S. Public Health Service policy tutorial is available on the NIH OLAW website:

    http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/tutorial/index.htm
 

The Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158 (Animals in Research), is on the NIH OLAW website:

    http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm
 

Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations. Published in 2013. U.S. Department of Agriculture website:

    http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/Animal%20Care%20Blue%20Book%20-%202013%20-%20FINAL.pdf
 

Guidelines
 

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed (2010), is available on the National Academies Press website (online as a free downloadable PDF) at

    http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12910
 

One free copy of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, as well as information about foreign language translations, is available on the website of the National Academy’s Institute for Laboratory Animal Research:

    http://dels.nas.edu/ilar
 

Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research was published in 2003 as an expansion of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. This book specifically covers the use of mammals in neuroscience and behavioral experiments.

    http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10732
 

The American Veterinary Medical Association’s (AVMA) AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals (2013) can be found on the AVMA website:

    https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Documents/euthanasia.pdf
 

Resources useful for IACUC members
 

IACUC Guidebook

    http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/GuideBook.pdf
 

U.S. Department of Agriculture information on IACUC activities and animal use:

    http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/oldbib/acuc.htm

    http://www.aphis.usda.gov/audience/academic.shtml
 

Compiled links on animal-use topics:

    http://netvet.wustl.edu/iacuc.htm

    http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/outline.htm
 

Bioethics
 

Bioethics resources on the Web (compiled by the NIH):

    http://www.nih.gov/sigs/bioethics/
 

Links to information about animal research
 

The Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) administers a voluntary program that evaluates and accredits the laboratory animal care programs of various institutions.

    http://www.aaalac.org
 

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) is an association of individuals and institutions that promotes the humane care, use, and management of animals in research, testing, education, and agriculture.

    http://www.scaw.com/
 

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) is a professional association of veterinarians, technicians, and others dedicated to exchanging information and expertise in the care and use of laboratory animals.

    http://www.aalas.org/
 

National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) advocates “sound public policy that recognizes the vital role of humane animal use in biomedical research, higher education, and product safety testing.”

    http://www.nabr.org/
 

The Foundation for Biomedical Research is NABR’s educational arm.

    http://www.fbresearch.org/
 

National Centre for the Replacement Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research: Funded by the Government of the United Kingdom, this site promotes and funds initiatives that replace or reduce the need for animals in research and testing, as well as improvements in animal welfare. This site hosts the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines and guideline checklist. Initially published in 2010 in PLoS Biology (http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412#pbio-1000412-t002) and 11 other journals, these guidelines consist of an itemized list of 20 items that describe the minimum information that scientific publications should report in research using animals.

    http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/
 

    http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/downloaddoc.asp?id=1206&page=1357&skin=0
 

Understanding Animal Research. This organization aims to achieve broad understanding of the humane use of animals in medical, veterinary, and environmental research in the United Kingdom. Their website provides information and educational materials on use of animals in research.

    http://understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/
 

Crisis management and disaster planning
 

U.S. Department of Agriculture guidance:

    http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/newsletters/v11n1/11n1heat.htm
 

The Society for Neuroscience’s Guidelines for Crisis Management: Responsible Use of Animals and Humans in Research is available at

    http://www.sfn.org/advocacy/animals-in-research/support-for-members-and-institutions/
 

Links to information from animal rights groups
 

AnimalConcerns.org is “a comprehensive resource for individuals, organizations and businesses working for social and environmental change.”

    http://www.animalconcerns.org/
 

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the archetype for animals rights groups in the United States.

    http://www.peta.org/
 

Appendix material
 

Appendix IV of this book contains the text of an animal subjects protocol.
 

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