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Frey RG. 1983. Rights, Killing, and Suffering: Moral Vegetarianism and Applied Ethics. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
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Policies and laws
The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals can be found on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) website (2002 reprint):
A U.S. Public Health Service policy tutorial is available on the NIH OLAW website:
The Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158 (Animals in Research), is on the NIH OLAW website:
Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations. Published in 2013. U.S. Department of Agriculture website:
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed (2010), is available on the National Academies Press website (online as a free downloadable PDF) at
One free copy of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, as well as information about foreign language translations, is available on the website of the National Academy’s Institute for Laboratory Animal Research:
Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research was published in 2003 as an expansion of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. This book specifically covers the use of mammals in neuroscience and behavioral experiments.
The American Veterinary Medical Association’s (AVMA) AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals (2013) can be found on the AVMA website:
Resources useful for IACUC members
U.S. Department of Agriculture information on IACUC activities and animal use:
Compiled links on animal-use topics:
Bioethics resources on the Web (compiled by the NIH):
Links to information about animal research
The Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) administers a voluntary program that evaluates and accredits the laboratory animal care programs of various institutions.
Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) is an association of individuals and institutions that promotes the humane care, use, and management of animals in research, testing, education, and agriculture.
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) is a professional association of veterinarians, technicians, and others dedicated to exchanging information and expertise in the care and use of laboratory animals.
National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) advocates “sound public policy that recognizes the vital role of humane animal use in biomedical research, higher education, and product safety testing.”
The Foundation for Biomedical Research is NABR’s educational arm.
National Centre for the Replacement Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research: Funded by the Government of the United Kingdom, this site promotes and funds initiatives that replace or reduce the need for animals in research and testing, as well as improvements in animal welfare. This site hosts the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines and guideline checklist. Initially published in 2010 in PLoS Biology (http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412#pbio-1000412-t002) and 11 other journals, these guidelines consist of an itemized list of 20 items that describe the minimum information that scientific publications should report in research using animals.
Understanding Animal Research. This organization aims to achieve broad understanding of the humane use of animals in medical, veterinary, and environmental research in the United Kingdom. Their website provides information and educational materials on use of animals in research.
Crisis management and disaster planning
U.S. Department of Agriculture guidance:
The Society for Neuroscience’s Guidelines for Crisis Management: Responsible Use of Animals and Humans in Research is available at
Links to information from animal rights groups
AnimalConcerns.org is “a comprehensive resource for individuals, organizations and businesses working for social and environmental change.”
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the archetype for animals rights groups in the United States.
Appendix IV of this book contains the text of an animal subjects protocol.